What is Fake News?

In today’s digital age, fake news has become a universal term. It’s almost impossible to scroll through social media or read an online article without encountering some form of misleading or false information. 

In fact, fake news has become so prevalent that it’s making it increasingly challenging to separate fact from fiction. It is crucial, now more than ever, to develop the skills to recognize and combat fake news. 

In this article, we will explore what exactly fake news is.

Definition of Fake News

Fake news refers to misleading or false information presented as if it were factual. It is often deliberately spread through social media or other online platforms with the aim of creating confusion, manipulating public opinion or advancing a particular agenda.

Fake news is not just limited to online sources, but can also be found in traditional media outlets, such as television or print media. 

Types of Fake News

There are two kind of false news – Misinformation and Disinformation

They are often used interchangeably but they refer to slightly different concepts.

Misinformation is simply false or inaccurate information that is spread unintentionally, often due to a lack of knowledge or understanding of the facts. Examples include rumors, insults and pranks.

Disinformation is false information that is intentionally spread with the goal of misleading or manipulating people. Examples include hoaxes, spear phishing and propaganda.

According to UNHCR, fake news can be any of the following:

  • Fabricated Content: A fake news story claiming that the Indian government had introduced a law banning all forms of religious conversion.
  • Manipulated Content: A doctored video clip of a political leader making a controversial statement, which was shared on social media with a sensational headline.
  • Imposter Content: A fake news article claiming to be from a well-known news agency like BBC or CNN, but in reality, it was created by a group spreading propaganda.
  • Misleading Content: A news article claiming that a popular Indian actor had died, when in fact, the actor was alive and well.
  • False Context: A misleading headline claiming that the Indian government had cut the budget for education, when in fact, the budget had increased.
  • Satire and Parody: A satirical news story claiming that the Indian government had banned the sale of samosas, a popular snack in the country.
  • False Connections: A misleading news article with a headline claiming that a popular Indian celebrity was involved in a major scam, but with no evidence supporting the claim.
  • Sponsored Content: An advertorial that looks like a genuine news article, promoting a particular product or service without disclosing that it is an advertisement.
  • Propaganda: A fake news story claiming that a political party was planning to introduce a law banning a particular religious community from voting in elections.
  • Error: A news report claiming that a particular region in India had experienced a major earthquake, when in fact, it was a minor tremor.

Source of Fake News

The sources of major fake news can vary widely, but some common sources include social media platforms, partisan websites, and individuals or groups with a particular agenda or bias. 

Social media has been identified as a major source of fake news due to the ease with which false information can be shared and spread rapidly. A 2020 study by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism found that people who rely on social media for news are more likely to be exposed to false or misleading information.

According to a study, most fake news in India is spread through private messaging apps like WhatsApp. The study found that nearly 90% of the messages that participants received on WhatsApp during the Indian election period in 2019 were classified as “problematic.”

Additionally, individuals or groups with a particular agenda or bias may spread fake news intentionally to advance their cause or discredit opposing views.

Impact of Fake News
The impact of fake news can be significant, as it can mislead individuals and create chaos in society. In 2018, fake news about child abductors led to a mob lynching in India, resulting in the deaths of several people. 

Similarly, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the circulation of false information led to people consuming bleach and other dangerous substances, thinking they could prevent the disease. Fake news in health can cause psychological disorders and panic, fear, depression, and fatigue.

Fake news can also influence political decisions, such as the 2016 US presidential election where false stories were shared on social media to sway voter opinion. 

Ultimately, fake news can harm individuals, communities, and even nations, making it important to be media literate and fact-check information before accepting it as true.

Last Word

Fake news has become a significant problem in today’s society, and it is our responsibility as informed citizens to be aware of its existence and actively work to combat it. 

With the rise of social media, fake news has become easier to spread and harder to detect, making it more important than ever to stay informed and vigilant. By developing media literacy skills and utilizing critical thinking, we can distinguish between fake news and real news, and prevent it from spreading further. It is crucial to verify sources and information before sharing or believing in them. 


  1. True or False: Fake news is always completely fabricated content.

Answer: False. Fake news can also be misleading, distorted, or presented out of context.

  1. True or False: Imposter content is when a genuine source is impersonated to spread false information.

Answer: True. For example, in 2019, a fake Twitter account impersonating the World Health Organization (WHO) spread misinformation about the coronavirus pandemic.

  1. True or False: Satire and parody are always harmless and have no impact on people’s beliefs or actions.

Answer: False. While satire and parody are meant to be humorous and not taken seriously, they can still be mistaken for real news and influence people’s opinions.

  1. True or False: Sponsored content is always labeled as advertising or PR.

Answer: False. Sometimes sponsored content is presented as editorial content, making it difficult for readers to distinguish between what is a paid promotion and what is genuine news.

  1. True or False: Errors in reporting by established news agencies are considered fake news.

Answer: False. Errors in reporting are not intentional, while fake news is deliberately created to spread false information.

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Media Literacy Team
Media Literacy Team
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